Manda

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Manda
Manda in Godzilla Singular Point
Manda in Atragon
Manda in Destroy All Monsters
Manda in Godzilla Final Wars
Alternate names Wenda, MantaGSP
Subtitle(s) Monster Dragon (怪竜,   Kairyū)[1]
Guardian Dragon (守護竜,   Shugoryū)[2]
Sea Dragon (海龍,   Kairyū)[1]
Guardian of the Mu Empire
(ムウ帝国守護神,   Mū Teikoku Shugoshin)[3]
Guardian Deity of Mu
(ムウの守護神,   Mū no Shugoshin)ATG[4]
Giant Dragon (巨竜,   Kyoryū)ATG
Undersea Monster
(海底怪獣,   Kaitei Kaijū)DAM[5]
Giant Marine Monster
(巨大海棲怪獣,   Kyodai Kaisei Kaijū)GSP[6]
Guardian Deity of the Seabed
(海底の守護神,   Kaitei no Shugoshin)G:TB
Species Sea dragon; extradimensional sea serpentGSP
Length Showa: 150 meters[7][8]
Millennium: 300 meters[1]
Reiwa: 210 metersGSP[9]
Weight Showa: 30,000 metric tons[7][8]
Millennium: 60,000 metric tons[1]
Girth Showa: 10 meters[2]
Controlled by MuansATG, KilaaksDAM, DevoniansGRoE
Relations KumongaGSP, Kamanga, Hanenga, Zenbunga (parasites)
Allies Godzilla, Rodan, Mothra, Anguirus, Varan, Gorosaurus, Kumonga, Baragon, Minilla, GezoraGRoE, TitanosaurusGRoE, DestoroyahGRoE
Enemies Gotengo, King Ghidorah,
GodzillaGRoE, GSP, Anguirus,G:C ZoosporaGWfH
Written by Shinichi Sekizawa
Designed by Akira WatanabeATG, Shinji NishikawaGFW, Eiji YamamoriGSP
Modeled by Teizo ToshimitsuATG, Kanju YagiATG,
Yasuei YagiATG
First appearance Latest appearance
Atragon Godziban
Roar(s)
ShowaMillenniumGodzilla Singular Point:More roars
Mu High Priest: “How shall we dispose of them?
Mu Empress: “They shall be Manda's sacrifice!
Mu High Priest: “Manda's...! I am sure Manda will gladly accept them!
Muans: “Manda! Manda! Manda!
― The Muans discuss how to handle their prisoners Susumu Hatanaka and Makoto Jinguji (Atragon)

Manda (マンダ,   Manda) is a sea dragon kaiju who first appeared in the 1963 Toho film Atragon.

In his debut film, Manda was the guardian of the undersea empire of Mu, and was unleashed to destroy the Gotengo before it could breach the heart of Mu. The second incarnation of Manda introduced in Destroy All Monsters was one of the monsters contained on Monsterland by the end of the 20th century, and was unleashed to attack London and Tokyo under the command of the Kilaak invaders. After the aliens' control of the monsters was severed, Manda was present at Mount Fuji when Godzilla and the other monsters battled King Ghidorah. Manda made a brief appearance in Godzilla Final Wars as well, once again battling the Gotengo underwater. Manda appears in Godzilla Singular Point as a social kaiju that swim together in groups. One Manda school appeared off the Boso Peninsula, and ultimately lead Godzilla into Tokyo Bay and onto dry land.

Name

Manda was originally conceptualized as a giant snake during the production of Atragon, and was given the name "Mammoth Snake" (マンモススネーク,   Manmosu Sunēku), which later became "Mammoth Serpent" (マンモス,   Manmosu Da). Because the upcoming year, 1964, was the year of the dragon, Toho felt it would be appropriate to make the monster a dragon instead. Toho redesigned the creature as a sea dragon and shortened "Manmosu Da" into "Manda," which became the monster's official name.[10][2] Manda's name has also been speculated to be a combination of the Japanese words "man" (万) and "daija" (大蛇), which when combined mean "ten thousand serpent."[11]

The Manda featured in Destroy All Monsters is sometimes denoted in official books as Second Generation Manda (二代目マンダ,   Nidaime Manda),[12] while the Manda from Godzilla Final Wars is called Manda (3rd Generation) (マンダ(3代目),   Manda Sandaime).[13]

In Godzilla Singular Point, Manda's name is designated by the government as a shortening of "mammoth-class snake" (マンモス級の蛇,   manmosukyū no hebi).

Development

Image board of the Mammoth Snake by Shigeru Komatsuzaki

Originally, the kaiju featured in Atragon was planned to be a giant snake, and was given the name "Mammoth Snake," later changed to "Mammoth Serpent." An image board drawn by Shigeru Komatsuzaki depicts the monster clearly as a snake. However, because the upcoming year, 1964, was the Year of the Dragon, Toho decided instead to make the monster a dragon.[14] The Japanese name for "Mammoth Serpent," Manmosu Da, was shortened to "Manda," which became the monster's final name.[10][2] Toho's company New Year's card for 1964 even included an illustration of Manda battling the Gotengo.[2] Manda's final design is credited to Akira Watanabe.[14]

The monster's head was modeled by Teizo Toshimitsu and its body by the Yagi brothers, Kanju and Yasuei. A unique trait added to Manda's design was his black cat-like eyes, unusual for Toho's kaiju at the time. Eiji Tsuburaya's team built ten different Manda props for the film, ranging in size from twenty centimeters to five meters.[11] The five-meter Manda had a radio-controlled jaw. Tsuburaya Productions later used one of the large Manda props to portray the Dragon in episode 6 of Ultra Q, "Grow Up! Little Turtle." A smaller Manda model was repurposed as the masthead of an old Viking boat in another Ultra Q episode, "I Saw a Bird".

The refurbished Manda prop used in Destroy All Monsters

For Destroy All Monsters, the large Manda prop which was lent to Tsuburaya Productions was returned to Toho and modified slightly for use in the film. The prop's head was replaced with a new, less ornate, one that lacked the spikes, horns, whiskers, and mane.[15] As a result, the Second Generation Manda looked more like his original conceived design as a gigantic snake, although he still possessed four legs. In addition to the refurbished prop, a small model of Manda was created for long shots.[2] Stock footage of Manda from this film would be used for the monster's appearance in All Monsters Attack the following year, in which he was a resident of Monster Island within the dreams of protagonist Ichiro Miki. Stock footage of Manda from Destroy All Monsters was again employed for a brief scene in Terror of Mechagodzilla in which Katsura Mafune mentions him as one of the monsters responsible for causing destruction in the past, along with Rodan and King Ghidorah.

Manda concept art for Godzilla Final Wars by Shinji Nishikawa

Manda's next film appearance came over three decades later in Godzilla's 50th anniversary film, Godzilla Final Wars. Shinji Nishikawa's design for Manda more closely resembled the original from Atragon instead of the one from Destroy All Monsters, though ironically Nishikawa is quoted in All Toho Monsters Pictorial Book as saying that he specifically shied away from the Atragon design, calling it a Manda "without the divinity."[16] A team consisting of Tomoki Kobayashi, Tadashi Ogawa, and Tsumugi Fujino created a six-meter-long physical prop for the monster.[17] In addition to the main prop, Manda was realized with 3D models for certain shots, and a blast model made of hard urethane foam with a plaster exterior was utilized to depict the frozen Manda being shredded by the Gotengo.[18]

Manda concept art for Godzilla: Singular Point by Eiji Yamamori

For Godzilla Singular Point, Manda was designed by monster design artist Eiji Yamamori, who decided to move away from Manda's usual depiction as a classical Eastern dragon and instead looked to arthropods for inspiration. Yamamori drew from the centipede most of all, wanting to translate its numerous legs into fins. He ultimately scaled back his plans for an insect-like Manda after conversing with director Atsushi Takahashi, re-adding Eastern dragon elements. The undulating fins of lionfish were another inspiration. Sketches by Yamamori were then sent to concept artist Yuji Kaneko, who determined the color and textures given to the designs. Orange Co., Ltd. handled the modeling and animation of Manda, which was based on the tail of Godzilla Ultima. The creatures proved difficult to animate due to their whiskers, fins, and mouths, and three animators were assigned to the task.[19]

Design

Manda resembles an Eastern dragon, as he has an elongated thin body with four legs. In Atragon and Godzilla Final Wars, Manda's skin is a bluish-green color, and his head is adorned with four horns. The original Manda from Atragon has two long barbels on his face that resemble whiskers, and a mane of hair that extends from the top of his head all the way to his tail. His face is also covered in small spikes. This Manda possesses yellow reptilian eyes with slit pupils.

The Second Generation Manda from Destroy All Monsters resembles a snake with legs rather than a traditional Oriental dragon. He has no horns or spikes on his head, and there is no hair on his body. His eyes are more rounded and mammalian and are light blue rather than yellow.

The Manda from Godzilla Final Wars more closely resembles the original Manda, though the hair on his back is replaced with a row of pointed spikes, and his whiskers are removed. This Manda has a small hood behind his head similar to that of a cobra, and four long barbs extending from the underside of his body. He also has spikes on his arms and legs, and a forked snake-like tongue rather than the rounded tongue possessed by previous incarnations.

In Godzilla Singular Point, Manda retains its long, serpentine body, but its head appears to more closely resemble a sturgeon than a dragon like previous incarnations. It also has some traits similar to arthropods, such as its armored carapace, as well as long insectoid antenna-like barbels. It has a pair of mantis shrimp-like forelimbs and webbed hind legs, as well as a tail fin resembling one of Godzilla's dorsal plates. Just like Godzilla, it also has multiple rows of teeth inside its mouth as well, although its teeth are shark-like.

Origins

In Atragon, Manda was the guardian of Mu, an underwater kingdom. How Manda became its protector and how long he had been protecting it is unknown.

In Destroy All Monsters, Manda is one of the monsters contained on Monsterland, a human-monitored island located in the Ogasawara Islands, at the end of the 20th century. According to Godzilla Movie Studio Tour and Godzilla Dictionary (New Edition), this Manda was raised by humanity.

Manda's past is never discussed during his brief appearance in Godzilla Final Wars, but in an interview with Henshin!Online published a month prior to the film's release, monster modeler Shinichi Wakasa explained:

[The monsters in the film are] not brand-new. The only new monster is Monster X. The others all have the same elements, the same character as before.
„ 

Shinichi Wakasa[20]

History

Showa era

Atragon

Manda in Atragon

The guardian of the underwater kingdom of Mu, Manda was unleashed by the Mu Empress when the Gotengo approached Mu. Manda attacked the ship, wrapping his body around it and trying to crush it. The Gotengo discharged a powerful electrical shock, forcing Manda to release it and retreat to a nearby rock. The Gotengo fired its Absolute Zero Cannon at Manda, freezing him in place and allowing it to proceed unopposed to Mu.


Destroy All Monsters

At the end of the 20th century, Manda was one of the monsters contained on Monsterland, a facility in the Ogasawara Islands. When the Kilaaks came to Earth and took control of Manda and the other monsters of the island, they made them attack major cities around the world. Manda was instructed to attack London. Manda later appeared in Tokyo alongside Godzilla, Rodan and Mothra, where he coiled around and crushed a monorail line. When the crew of the Moonlight SY-3 freed the monsters from the Kilaaks' control by destroying their transmitter tower on the Moon, the monsters gathered at the base of Mount Fuji to launch an assault on the Kilaak base. Though Manda was among the group, he didn't participate in the battle against King Ghidorah, instead opting to observe the fight from the sidelines with Varan and Baragon. After King Ghidorah was defeated, Manda and the other kaiju returned to Monsterland to live in peace.


All Monsters Attack

Stock footage of Manda from Destroy All Monsters in
All Monsters Attack

Manda was one of the monsters inhabiting Monster Island in the dreams of Ichiro Miki.


Terror of Mechagodzilla

As Dr. Shinzo Mafune prepared to unleash Titanosaurus to take his revenge on the rest of humanity, his daughter Katsura begged him not to turn Titanosaurus into a monster of destruction like Manda, Rodan, or King Ghidorah.

Millennium era

Godzilla Final Wars

In 20XX, Manda attacked Normandy, causing the Earth Defense Force to deploy the Gotengo to engage him in the English Channel. At first, Manda was able to constrict himself around the Gotengo and pull the warship further and further into the depths of the water, severely damaging it. However, the crew spotted an underwater volcano and charged into it, with Manda stuck on their ship. Unable to withstand the heat, Manda was forced to uncoil himself and swam away. The Gotengo managed to get out of the volcano, but Manda charged at the ship. The Gotengo turned around 180 degrees and fired the Absolute Zero Cannon to freeze the weakened Manda, and then rammed into him with its powerful drill, breaking him into pieces and killing him in the process.

Reiwa era

Godzilla Singular Point

"Gadabout"

While seeking a way out from the red-stained seas near Tokyo Bay, a fishing boat's crew runs afoul of a group of Mandas that proceed to capsize it.

"Theorist"

When a Japanese Coast Guard rescue helicopter arrives to rescue the stranded fishermen, one of the Mandas sticking around the boat turn their attention towards the copter. Swatting at the helicopter with its tail, the rescue team is forced into evasive action and the fishing boat is fully sunk, though the fishermen are recovered. In response to the attacks, the government closes boat traffic in Tokyo Bay until an extermination plan can be carried out.

"Enfatico"

As the JSDF moves in to exterminate the Manda school, they are interrupted by the arrival of Godzilla Aquatilis, who has been hunting the group, resulting in them entering Tokyo Bay to flee him.

"Omniarch"

As the Manda school is cornered around Tokyo's waterfront, Godzilla Aquatilis manages to wrestle and drag one onto land, killing it before evolving into its Amphibia form.

"Graftage"

After Godzilla made landfall, kaiju appearances began to spread worldwide. While on a boat to London, Mei and Li watched as a swarm of Mandas appeared and began making their way inland and swimming into the Thames River. Meanwhile, in Japan, a Manda carcass washed up on the shore of a boatyard where it was discovered by Yun, Haberu, and Goro, who soon discovered that a group of parasites from the sea monster had taken shelter in a warehouse.

"Relaunch"

As Godzilla Ultima rampages through Tokyo, a Manda attacks and constricts him, biting down onto his neck, but Godzilla used his atomic breath to decapitate it. Afterwards, when the Otaki Factory team and Jet Jaguar moved through the Red Dust filled city to begin their attack on Godzilla, they briefly saw another Manda swimming through the flooded streets.

Godziban

Manda was called into action when Godzilla-kun lead a charge against King Ghidorah in episode 12, alongside Kumonga and Varan.

Abilities

Constriction

Manda can wrap his body around an enemy or structure and crush it similar to how a snake constricts its prey. In Atragon, Manda used his constriction abilities against the Gotengo before being forced to let go after the underwater vessel shocked him with an electric current. In Destroy All Monsters, Manda destroyed a monorail bridge by constricting it. In Godzilla Final Wars, this ability is called Binding Breaker (バインディング・ブリーカー,   Baindingu Burīkā).[1] It was shown to be very effective against the Gotengo, and may have crushed the ship if the heat from an underwater volcano had not forced Manda to release his grip. In Godzilla Singular Point, a Manda briefly constricted Godzilla Ultima, only to be killed by his atomic breath.

Amphibiousness

Although he is slow on land, Manda can swim very fast and can breathe while submerged in water.

Supersonic Wave Cannon

In the novel GODZILLA: Monster Apocalypse, Manda was able to emit a powerful Supersonic Wave Cannon (超音波砲,   Chōonpa-hō) from his evolved bio-sonar organ.[21]

Fireballs

In the video game Godzilla: Monster of Monsters!, Manda has the ability to spit fireballs.

Physical abilities

Along with his other melee techniques, Manda will also bite opponents, such as when he attempted to bite through the Gotengo's hull in Godzilla Final Wars. In Godzilla Singular Point, a Manda bit Godzilla on the neck and caused him to bleed. According to Godzilla Dictionary (New Edition), the Manda in Destroy All Monsters can move on land at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour.

Weaknesses

Manda is vulnerable to cold and being frozen, which is how the Gotengo defeated him in both Atragon and Godzilla Final Wars. In Atragon, the Gotengo forced Manda to stop constricting it by releasing an electrical current.

In the Godzilla Singular Point episode "Enfatico", three JMSDF ships killed seven Manda in a school with naval artillery, specifically a 5"/54 caliber Mark 54 gun, 5"/54 caliber Mark 62 gun, and Otobreda 127/54 Compact. Two other Manda were easily killed by Godzilla, the first mauled by Godzilla Aquatilis and the second decapitated by Godzilla Ultima's atomic breath.

Video games

Godzilla (PlayStation 3 / PlayStation 4)

Main article: Godzilla (2014 video game)/Kaiju Guide#Manda.

Godzilla Kaiju Wars VR

A chaotic battle between Godzilla, Megaguirus and Manda breaks out in Tokyo, with Manda seemingly commanding an army of smaller sea serpents attacking humans in the streets and waterways. Players are tasked with piloting an attack helicopter to try and destroy all monsters.

Books

Who's Afraid of Godzilla?

Manda appears as a minor character in this children's book, frolicking in the ocean.

GODZILLA: Monster Apocalypse

Manda appeared in the Atlantic Ocean in 2022, which he continuously terrorized for more than a decade, and was unable to be defeated due to his agility, sturdy body that was resistant to damage, and his ability to emit a Supersonic Wave Cannon. In 2039, humanity launched Operation Eternal Light to regain control of the Atlantic from the kaiju. Manda was engaged and destroyed by the Goten in the Strait of Dover as part of this operation.[21]

GODZILLA: Project Mechagodzilla

In the 2040s, another Manda appeared in the Persian Gulf and attacked United Earth engineers engaged in Operation Great Wall.[22]

Comics

Godzilla: Rulers of Earth

Manda was classified as a "water" monster in a cave mural on Infant Island.

Manda and Gezora had fallen under the control of the Devonian aliens, who used the two monsters to attack the U.S.S. Goldstein. Manda constricted the aircraft carrier with his body and caused it to explode, while Gezora targeted any survivors. After the Devonians betrayed the Cryog aliens, they sent Manda, Gezora, and Titanosaurus to attack a naval fleet assembled beyond the shores of the island where Godzilla had battled Biollante. As the fleet came under attack, Godzilla intervened by grabbing Manda, who attempted to strangle Godzilla with his body. However, Godzilla was able to grab onto Manda and use his body as a weapon, swinging Manda's head into a battleship as well as Gezora. After breaking free, Manda attempted to restrain Godzilla alongside Gezora, though the King of the Monsters was able to scare them off with his atomic breath. Later, the trio of Devonian-controlled monsters were dispatched yet again to protect the Devonian capital against Godzilla, this time joined by the Devonian creation Destoroyah. Manda wrapped his body around Godzilla as Gezora also restrained him, allowing Destoroyah to gore Godzilla in the chest with his horn. After shaking Gezora off, Godzilla swatted Manda into Destoroyah with his tail before striking the snake-like kaiju with a blast of his atomic breath. During the fight, the military utilized a new sonar gun on the monsters, sending the water kaiju retreating further underwater towards the Devonians' undersea city, where the fight resumed. Manda bit into Godzilla's arm, but Godzilla fought back by strangling him while engaging Titanosaurus. After Godzilla bit Manda in the neck and blasted him with another blast of his ray, Manda was finally defeated just before the Devonian base was destroyed.

Manda's whereabouts in the aftermath of the battle were a mystery, though a Trilopod with his characteristics took part in the final battle between the Cryogs and Earth's monsters in Los Angeles four years later, meaning he had evidently fought against the Trilopods at some point. However, Manda himself was never seen inside the Trilopod hive, nor did he take part in the final battle between the Earth monsters and the Trilopods, leaving his ultimate fate following the Trilopod attack unknown.

Godzilla: Cataclysm

Manda was among the many monsters who participated in a great monster apocalypse that led to the downfall of civilization. After psychic humans attempted to gain control over the kaiju, the monsters went berserk and rampaged through cities. One of the surviving psychics, Hiroshi, encountered Manda during the chaos, where he attempted to gain control over Manda to no avail. However, King Ghidorah inadvertently saved Hiroshi by grabbing Manda and flying off with him. Manda was later seen constricting Anguirus as the rest of the monsters rampaged.

Godzilla: Rage Across Time

During the Cretaceous Period, Manda battled Titanosaurus underwater.

Godzilla: War for Humanity

The infected Manda in Godzilla: War for Humanity

Only one day after ambushing Gorosaurus, the mysterious new kaiju known as Zoospora attacked Manda as well. As a result of coming into contact with Zoospora's secretions, the serpentine kaiju abruptly changed his migration patterns and rampaged through the nearest populated area, now under Zoospora's control. Some time later, Manda and the similarly-infected Gorosaurus and Anguirus converged upon Tokyo, where the trio of kaiju began laying waste to the hapless city unopposed. In a desperate bid to save Tokyo, a task force used the mech Super MOGUERA to kidnap the infant kaiju Minilla and use them as bait to lure Godzilla to the monsters. Upon arrival, Super MOGUERA fired a barrage of missiles and lasers at Manda and the other monsters, prompting them to attack and batter the mech into buildings. While Super MOGUERA was distracted by the arrival of Mothra and the infected Rodan, Manda, Gorosaurus, and Anguirus closed in on Minilla, at which point Godzilla finally arrived and blasted the trio with his atomic breath to save Minilla. Manda then returned his attention to Super MOGUERA and constricted around the mech, causing catastrophic damage that forced the task force to retreat. Godzilla then fought and temporarily incapacitated Manda and several other kaiju alone before he was overwhelmed by the arrival of Zoospora itself. By nightfall, Manda and the other kaiju recovered and resumed their assault on Godzilla, where they were joined by the now-infected Mothra. Godzilla struggled to keep the five kaiju at bay and protect Minilla, with Manda wrapping his body around the King of the Monsters. Despite the damage it had sustained, Super MOGUERA eventually returned to the battle and saved Godzilla from being overcome by the monsters, briefly keeping them at bay with its laser sword. Shortly thereafter, thanks to the actions of the task force and Godzilla, Zoospora was destroyed, causing its poison to dissipate and free the infected kaiju from its control. Upon coming to his senses, Manda promptly retreated back into the ocean alongside his fellow kaiju, sparing Tokyo from further destruction.

Gallery

Main article: Manda/Gallery.

Sightings

Roar

In Atragon, Manda's growls were derived from lions.[23] For AIP's Americanization of Atragon, Manda was given stock roars (including those used in Reptilicus) to supplement the Toho sound effects. Media Blasters gave him a more intimidating roar for the English surround mix on its 2006 Atragon DVD. The original sounds would later be reused for Godzilla beginning in Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, Gaira from The War of the Gargantuas, and King Kong in King Kong Escapes. In Destroy All Monsters, Manda's roars were sped up and raised in pitch. His roars in Godzilla Final Wars closely resemble his roars from the Showa era. The Mandas in Godzilla Singular Point reuse King Caesar's roars, themselves slightly higher pitched Toho King Kong roars mixed with lion or tiger growls.

Manda's roars in the Showa series
Manda's roars in Godzilla Final Wars

In other languages

Language Name Meaning
Chinese Flagicon Hong Kong.png Cantonese 曼达 Transcription of name
China and Taiwan Flags.png Mandarin 曼达 Màndá Transcription of name
Flagicon Russia.png Russian Манда Transliteration of English name
Flagicon Serbia.png Serbian Манда Transliteration of English name

Trivia

Video

Wikizilla: YouTube Kaiju Profile: Manda

References

This is a list of references for Manda. These citations are used to identify the reliable sources on which this article is based. These references appear inside articles in the form of superscript numbers, which look like this: [1]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Toho Special Effects All Monster Encyclopedia. Shogakukan. 23 July 2014. pp. 32, 117. ISBN 4-096-82090-3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Toho Special Effects Movie Complete Works. villagebooks. 28 September 2012. p. 75-76, 125. ISBN 4-864-91013-8.
  3. Godzilla Final Wars Super Complete Works. Shogakukan. January 20, 2005. p. 77. ISBN 978-4091014986.
  4. The Pictorial Book of Godzilla 2. Hobby Japan Co., Ltd. 1 December 1995. p. 4. ISBN 978-4894251175.
  5. Ultra Books: Destroy All Monsters. Asahi Sonorama. 1968.
    Ultra Books Kaiju Soshingeki Manda.jpg
  6. "Kaiju". godzilla-sp.jp. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Godzilla Giant Monsters Super Encyclopedia (4th ed.). Kodansha. 15 March 1994. p. 52. ISBN 978-4063042702.
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.D. Lees, Marc Cerasini (24 March 1998). The Official Godzilla Compendium. Random House. p. 134. ISBN 0679888225.
    Compendium20.png
  9. Godzilla Singular Point Fan Book. Futabasha. 13 July 2021. p. 42. ISBN 978-4-575-45883-1.
  10. 10.0 10.1 『海底軍艦/妖星ゴラス/宇宙大怪獣ドゴラ』(Atragon/Gorath/Dogora). Toho. 〈東宝SF特撮映画シリーズ (Toho SF Special Effects Movie Series) VOL.4〉, 1985. ISBN 4924609137.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Atragon: A Toho Classic Revisited by Ed Godziszewski, published in G-Fan #21 (May/June 1996)
  12. Nomura, Kohei (5 December 2004). Godzilla Dictionary. Kasakura Publishing. p. 254. ISBN 4773002921.
  13. Nomura, Kohei (28 September 2014). Godzilla Dictionary [New Edition]. Kasakura Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 978-4-7730-8725-3.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Battle History of Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla. Takeshobo. 27 December 1993. p. 205. ISBN 4884756894.
  15. Godzilla 1954-1999 Super Complete Works. Shogakukan. 1 January 2000. p. 130. ISBN 978-4091014702.
  16. All Toho Monsters Pictorial Book (4th Edition). Yosensha. 4 September 2016. p. 304. ISBN 978-4-8003-0362-2.
  17. Toho SF Special Effects Movie Series: Godzilla Final Wars. 東宝出版商品事業室. 25 January 2005. p. 24. ISBN 4924609897.
  18. Toho SFX Movies Authentic Visual Book EX Vol. 006: Gotengo
  19. MONSTROSITIES (25 May 2021). "The Kaiju of Godzilla Singular Point: Mysteries And Production Story | Godzilla's Netflix Anime 2021". YouTube.
  20. Aiken, Keith (7 November 2004). "GODZILLA FINAL WARS INTERVIEW: SHINICHI WAKASA". Henshin!Online.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Oki, Renji (25 October 2017). GODZILLA: Monster Apocalypse. Kadokawa. pp. 186–212. ISBN 9784041061817.
  22. Oki, Renji (25 April 2018). GODZILLA: Project Mechagodzilla. Kadokawa. pp. 86–111. ISBN 9784041063453.
  23. Toho Kingdom - Manda [Showa]
  24. Godzilla: Defense Force - Unreleased Content

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