A bizarre alien lifeform that arrived on Earth in a comet, Hedorah quickly grew to gigantic size by feeding on humanity's pollution. Beginning as a huge tadpole-like creature, Hedorah transformed into a terrestrial form and came ashore in Japan, where he battled Godzilla. Continuing to grow and evolve, Hedorah took on an airborne form capable of spreading clouds of toxic mist and finally a colossal bipedal form that dwarfed even Godzilla. Hedorah was finally destroyed by a combination of Godzilla's efforts and a device constructed by humanity, but the threat of rampant pollution giving rise to another Hedorah remained. Hedorah's next onscreen appearance came in Godzilla: Final Wars, where he was a pawn of the Xiliens in their invasion of Earth. Hedorah was unleashed along with Ebirah to battle Godzilla in Tokyo Bay, but Godzilla made short work of both monsters.
- 1 Name
- 2 Design
- 3 Personality
- 4 Origins
- 5 History
- 6 Abilities
- 7 Filmography
- 8 Video Games
- 9 Books
- 10 Comics
- 11 Gallery
- 12 Roar
- 13 In Other Languages
- 14 Trivia
- 15 Video
- 16 External Links
- 17 References
- 18 Comments
Hedorah was named after hedoro (ヘドロ), a Japanese word for sludge, slime, or ooze. He is commonly referred to as the Smog Monster (公害怪獣, as he both consumes and produces numerous gaseous pollutants, and is referred to as such in the American dub for Kōgai Kaijū)Godzilla vs. Hedorah. In the Japanese trailer for Godzilla vs. Hedorah, he was instead given the title Ninja Monster (忍者怪獣. Ninja Kaijū)
During pre-production, Hedorah was originally called Hedoron (ヘドロン). Coincidentally, the first two episodes of P-Productions' Spectreman in January 1971 featured a pollution monster with the same name. Toho would later use the Hedoron name for a monster from their TV series Warrior of Love Rainbowman. Additionally, Haruo Nakajima revealed that he and the staff working on Godzilla vs. Hedorah referred to the monster as Gomi (ゴミ), meaning "garbage."
Hedorah's first four forms are denoted as Initial Stage (初期 Sho-ki) or Young Form (幼体, Aquatic Stage Yō-tai) (水中棲息期, Landing Stage Suichū Seisoku-ki) (上陸期, and Flying Stage Jōriku-ki) (飛行期. His final form is known as either the Perfect Stage Hikō-ki) (完全期, Kanzen-ki) Mature Stage (成長期, Seichō-ki) or the Giant Stage (巨大化期. Kyodai-ka-ki)
In both English-dubbed versions of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, the "o" in Hedorah's name is not pronounced, and in the dubbing of the American version, the "He" is stressed with the long-e sound ("Hee-drah"), though the spelling in both onscreen text and promotional material remains the same.
Hedorah's stages all share multiple common characteristics - all have gray, kelp-like surfaces and large, gold-and-black irises with red sclera. These eyes are positioned so that they blink sideways. In its Initial and Aquatic stages, Hedorah resembled a tadpole. In its Landing Stage, it took on a quadrupedal reptilian form. Its Flying Stage was like a flying saucer, and its Perfect Stage took on a humanoid shape.
The Hedorah from Godzilla: Final Wars has a dark gray body with reddish tubes protruding from it. It is considerably thinner than the original Hedorah, with more discernible legs and fewer kelp-like protrusions on its body. Hedorah's left arm also possesses a long, whip-like extension. The 2004 Hedorah only appears in a single form that resembles the original Hedorah's Perfect Stage, and it is unknown if it possesses any other forms.
According to an interview with Yoshimitsu Banno by the Japanese magazine Eiga Hi-Ho, Hedorah's eyes were modeled after vaginas. In Godzilla: Final Wars, this allusion is significantly toned down, and his eyes were tilted, thus appearing to have a more 'normal' appearance.
In Godzilla vs. Hedorah, Godzilla tears out two white orbs from Hedorah's body. While in the film, the purpose of these orbs is never discussed, supplementary materials explain them to be Hedorah's eyeballs, despite them being white instead of red.
Hedorah seems to be primarily driven by instinct and the will to survive, and the horrific death and destruction he causes are mostly derived from his bizarre biological properties rather than any true malice. However, he does demonstrate aggression and an ever-increasing amount of intelligence and awareness in his encounters with Godzilla. When first confronted by Godzilla, Hedorah answers Godzilla's taunts and seems to even mimic his gestures. During the final battle, Hedorah even laughs while brutally maiming Godzilla, and when he attempts to drown him in sludge.
In Godzilla: Final Wars, Hedorah was under Xilien mind control and did not act independently. His only visible onscreen actions involve him being blasted out of Tokyo Bay, then visibly waving his arms and panicking before Ebirah's claw pierces his eye.
In the comic series Godzilla: Ongoing, Hedorah is aligned with the other space monsters, and seems to be intentionally causing destruction.
In Godzilla vs. Hedorah, Hedorah was an alien life form from the Dark Gaseous Nebula in the Orion constellation that landed on Earth after traveling on a comet for at least 243 light years. In Godzilla: Final Wars, Hedorah was one of many monsters under the control of the Xiliens, but his origin and how he came under the Xiliens' control are never explained. According to GODZILLA: Monster Apocalypse, the official prequel novel to GODZILLA: Planet of the Monsters, Hedorah was a colony of sludge-like microorganisms discovered in a waste mine in China that was subsequently converted into a biological weapon by the Chinese military.
Hedorah, an alien from the Dark Gaseous Nebula of the Orion, landed on Earth during the arrival of a comet, and promptly began feeding on pollution. Hedorah's actions soon gained the attention of Godzilla, who attacked the Smog Monster as he was literally sucking on an active smokestack to consume the pollutants being given off by it. At the time, Hedorah was smaller than Godzilla and inexperienced at fighting, and was easily trounced by Godzilla. The two creatures had a series of battles across Japan, and Hedorah continued to grow bigger and stronger, and eventually evolved into a flying saucer-like stage, allowing him to fly and spread sulfuric acid mist across Japan while destroying many factories as he continued to feed. Hedorah and Godzilla had a final showdown at the summit of Mount Fuji, in which Hedorah achieved his Perfect Stage, a humanoid, walking pile of sludge. Thanks to his acidic, poisonous body, as well as his lethal eye bolts, Hedorah very nearly put an end to Godzilla in their struggle. However, the JSDF had built a pair of gigantic electrodes near the warring monsters. Since Hedorah was an amorphous being and thus was mostly fluid, it was hoped that the two electrodes would dry Hedorah out and defeat him. Unfortunately, during the battle the fuses to control the electrodes had blown and the pylons supplying electricity had been damaged by the two monsters, making the electrodes useless.
Despite receiving brutal injuries in the battle, Godzilla powered the electrons with a blast of his atomic breath as Hedorah was standing between them, dehydrating him. Just as it seemed Godzilla had triumphed, Hedorah's dried husk burst open and another Hedorah flew out of it. Godzilla used his atomic breath to propel himself into the air and chase after Hedorah. After knocking Hedorah down, Godzilla brought Hedorah back to the electrodes and had them near-completely dry Hedorah out. Realizing Hedorah might still have moisture within him that could bring him back to life, Godzilla tore into Hedorah's body and had the electrodes dry out the remaining husk of Hedorah, reducing him to a mass of dust and finally defeating the alien.
Hedorah appeared in the television show Godzilla Island. Called upon by the Xilien Zagres, Hedorah attacked a dying Mothra and her offspring, Mothra Leo. To protect Leo, Mothra flew Hedorah over to a volcano and dropped him inside. However, the volcano erupted, killing Mothra. Hedorah simply climbed back out of the volcano because of his heat resistance. He then went back to Godzilla Island, but was eventually dehydrated and destroyed by the combined efforts of Godzilla and the new Imago Mothra Leo.
There was also another Hedorah in Godzilla Island called Neo Hedorah.
Hedorah was the only Xilien-controlled monster, apart from the concealed Monster X and Gigan, not to participate in the initial attack on Earth's cities. The Controller of Planet X later dispatched him, along with Ebirah, to stop Godzilla in Tokyo Bay. Godzilla's atomic ray quickly sent him flying through the air and crashing into a building. Ebirah followed, and his claw pierced Hedorah's left eye. The two were then destroyed by an extended blast of Godzilla's atomic ray, much to the Controller's frustration.
During the end credits, footage of Hedorah destroying Tokyo using sulfuric acid mist emitted from his tube is shown.
Hedorah was a biological weapon that was unleashed by the Chinese military when the monsters Anguirus and Rodan attacked Beijing in November of 2005. "Operation Hedorah" was successful in killing both monsters, but the bioweapon subsequently went out of control and rampaged through the surrounding area, then disappeared after running out of pollutants on which to feed.
Hedorah is one of Godzilla's most difficult opponents in the Showa series. While he could not kill Godzilla, he seriously injured him and cost him a hand and one of his eyes, and it required the combined efforts of Godzilla and humanity to finally defeat Hedorah.
Hedorah is composed almost entirely of a mineral called Hedrium, an acidic, sludge-like material, which he uses as his primary means of attack. Hedorah can launch pieces of his body at opponents, which will burn or smother them. Hedorah can also discharge large quantities of sludge without impacting his size in any way, shown in Godzilla vs. Hedorah when he attempts to drown Godzilla in a pit by dumping a continuous stream of sludge onto him.
Sulfuric Acid Mist
Hedorah does not require oxygen to survive, but rather thrives on inhaling toxic pollutants. The byproduct of Hedorah consuming these pollutants is a highly concentrated Sulfuric Acid Mist (硫酸ミスト, also called Sulfate Mist in the Ryūsan Misuto)Kaiju Guide for the PlayStation 3 and 4 Godzilla game, which is capable of corroding any metal and completely disintegrating organic life. In his Flying Stage, Hedorah was also able to fly by propelling himself through the air with this mist, spreading the mist across a large area in the process. Hedorah's sulfuric acid mist was able to make Godzilla collapse and gasp for air.
In the ending credits of Godzilla: Final Wars, Hedorah is shown spraying Sulfuric Acid Mist from tubes on his body, while stomping through the ruins of Tokyo. Hedorah is not seen using this ability in the film itself.
Hedorah is capable of firing a crimson laser beam from his eye known as the Hedrium Ray (ヘドリューム光線, also called the Crimson Beam in Godzilla for the PlayStation 3 and 4, which is capable of setting objects on fire and burning Godzilla's flesh. Both Hedorah's Flying and Perfect Stages are capable of firing this beam. According to the Hedoryūmu Kōsen)Godzilla: Final Wars theater program and Godzilla: Final Wars Super Complete Works, the Millennium incarnation of Hedorah possesses a variation on this ability called the Red Melting Ray (赤色溶解熱線, though he is never shown using it. These are translated to Red light diffusing heat rays by the Kaiju Guide. Sekishoku Yōkai Nessen)
Division and Recombination
Hedorah is a hive organism, composed of multiple smaller Hedorahs having joined together. Hedorah can grow in size and power by merging with other Hedorahs, or split apart into multiple smaller ones and recombine at a later time. Hedorah first demonstrates this ability in his first battle with Godzilla, where a small chunk of his body flies off while Godzilla swings him through the air. This piece of Hedorah begins moving on its own and eventually grows into a Landing Stage, then combines with the larger Flying Hedorah as it flies through Tokyo. Hedorah also uses this ability to survive during his final battle with Godzilla. When Godzilla uses the Giant Electrode to dry Hedorah's Perfect Form into a husk, a smaller Flying Hedorah breaks free of the husk and attempts to flee.
By feeding on pollutants and combining with other Hedorahs, Hedorah can grow substantially in size and evolve into new, more powerful forms. Hedorah started out as a completely aquatic, tadpole-like creature, but evolved to develop legs that allowed him to come on land and gain access to more pollutants. Hedorah's next evolution granted him the ability to fly through the air and cover large distances quickly. The creature's final, Perfect Stage was a giant bipedal form that towered over Godzilla and allowed him to stand up to Godzilla in a hand-to-hand fight. Hedorah has the ability to switch between these forms at will: his Perfect Stage can transform to his Flying Stage and back at will. After a large portion of his body was dried out by the Giant Electrodes, the smaller Flying Hedorah that emerged from the monster's Perfect Stage was still able to transform into the Landing Stage.
As a result of his acidic and amorphous body, Hedorah has extremely strong defenses. Conventional weapons are useless against him, as they simply pass through him, leaving Hedorah unharmed. Godzilla's atomic breath also failed to work on Hedorah before the Giant Electrodes were switched on, as his beam was incapable of drying Hedorah out, and only caused him to spark. Attacking Hedorah physically is a poor choice as well, as any contact with Hedorah's extremely corrosive blood results in horrific injuries, such as Godzilla's hand being burned down to the bone. Only Hedorah's eyes are known to be affected by its own blood, and it has to close its eye whenever it bleeds to prevent the eye from being damaged. While Hedorah is vulnerable to being dried out, he can survive this if any moist parts of his body are left behind. Godzilla was forced to tear Hedorah apart and expose every square inch of his body to the electrical current of the Giant Electrodes in order to successfully destroy him.
Because Hedorah's body is composed of a moist, sludge-like substance, he is vulnerable to being dried out by strong electrical currents. Hedorah was finally destroyed by electrical currents of the Giant Electrodes constructed by Toru Yano and the JSDF, with Godzilla ensuring his demise by tearing him apart and exposing every square inch of his body to the current. After being dried by this electricity, Hedorah crumbled into dust.
- Godzilla vs. Hedorah (1971)
- Godzilla Island (TV 1997-1998) [episodes 41-50, 65, 72, 127]
- Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)
- GODZILLA: Planet of the Monsters (2017) [mentioned]
- Monster's Fair (1985) - Microsoft MSX
- Gojira-kun (1985) - Microsoft MSX
- Godzilla: Monster of Monsters! (1988) - Nintendo Entertainment System / Famicom
- Godzilla 2: War of the Monsters (1992) - Nintendo Entertainment System
- Battle Baseball (1993) - Nintendo Famicom
- Godzilla, King of the Monsters (1993) - Nintendo Game Boy
- Godzilla: Battle Legends (1993) - NEC/Hudson Soft TurboDuo / PC Engine Duo
- Godzilla: Heart-Pounding Monster Island!! (1995) - Sega Pico
- Godzilla Movie Studio Tour (1998) - PC and Mac
- Godzilla: Trading Battle (1998) - Sony PlayStation
- Godzilla Generations (1998) - Sega Dreamcast
- Collect Godzilla: Giant Monster Assembly (1998) - Sega Dreamcast VMU
- Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee (2002) - Nintendo GameCube and Microsoft Xbox
- Godzilla (2014) - PlayStation 3 and 4
- Godzilla: Kaiju Collection (2015) - Android and iOS
- CR True King of the Monsters Godzilla (2018) - Pachinko
- Godzilla Defense Force (2019) - Android and iOS
Hedorah appears as a villain in the 1988 Nintendo Entertainment System game Godzilla: Monster of Monsters!, as well as the sequel, Godzilla 2: War of the Monsters. Hedorah was an enemy in Gojira-kun and the Godzilla Game Boy game as well, and was unique because Godzilla's blows couldn't hurt him, but only push him back somewhat.
Hedorah also makes an appearance in Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee, where it randomly appears in its Flying Stage and slows the other monsters' energy recovery by spreading sulfuric mist. Hedorah can be destroyed by the player if hit by a beam attack, after which he will dissipate into a mist.
Hedorah was considered for both of the sequels to Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee, but was ultimately not included in either, although he did make an appearance in Godzilla Unleashed: Double Smash for the Nintendo DS.
Hedorah appears for the first time as a playable character in the PS4 version of Godzilla, and as an enemy monster in the PS3 version. He is one of the lower tier characters, and can be fought on any difficulty path.
- One tap: Triangle Stroke
- Two taps: Headbutt
- Three taps: Tail Attack
- Tap: Mount
- Tap: Jump
- Forward + Tap: Forward Jump
- Back + Tap: Back Jup
- Left/Right + Tap: Left Right Jump
- Tap: Crimson Beam
- Forward + Tap: Acid Spray (Front)
- Back + Tap: Acid Spray (Area)
- Left/Right + Tap: Acid Spray (Wide Area)
- Roar + Tap: Crimson Beam Combo
- Tap: Acid Mist Body Press
- Main article: Godzilla (2014 video game)/Kaiju Guide#Hedorah.
Hedorah in Monster's Fair
Hedorah in Gojira-kun
Hedorah in Godzilla: Monster of Monsters!
Hedorah's Sprite in Godzilla 2: War of the Monsters
Hedorah's Flying Stage in Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
Hedorah in Godzilla: Kaiju Collection
- Godzilla vs. Gigan and the Smog Monster (1996)
- Godzilla at World's End (1998)
- GODZILLA: Monster Apocalypse (2017)
A factory damaged by an earthquake lured Hedorah to Los Angeles. He terrorized the city with "sickening gases," "toxic skin," and "noxious breath," melting the Hollywood sign in the process. Rodan arrived to battle him, as he had in the past, but was quickly overpowered by the Smog Monster's poisonous attacks. Godzilla came ashore at Santa Monica Beach and targeted Hedorah with his atomic breath, blasting a hole straight through him and saving Rodan. Close to death, Hedorah retreated into the upper atmosphere.
Hedorah originated as a colony of sludge-like microorganisms that consumed chemical substances in water. It was first discovered by the Chinese military inside a waste mine in Hebei, China, in 1999, and subsequently studied in order to be converted into a bioweapon. Hedorah was finally unleashed to combat Rodan and Anguirus when they attacked Beijing in 2005. The colony reconfigured into a giant black mist-like figure with red and yellow eyes, and killed both monsters. However after this point Hedorah went out of control and destroyed Beijing and Tianjin overnight. It then disappeared after consuming all pollutants in the area.
- Godzilla: Legends #4 (2012)
- Godzilla: Ongoing #6, 8-11 (2012-2013)
- Godzilla: The Half-Century War #3 (2012)
- Godzilla: Rulers of Earth #1, 5 (2013)
- Godzilla: Oblivion #5 (2016)
While Hedorah doesn't appear in the main story of this manga series, he appears as Godzilla's opponent in the Street Fighter Godzilla story, placed at the end of Volume 2. In this short story, Hedorah is dressed up as Blanka from the Street Fighter series, while Godzilla is dressed up as Ryu. Hedorah fights Godzilla with his red beams, but gets sent flying by a Shoryuken from Godzilla.
Hedorah is featured in the fourth issue of the miniseries Godzilla: Legends. In this issue, Mechagodzilla is sent to China in pursuit of Godzilla. Once the mech and its crew arrive, they find that the entire area has been destroyed and that the air is full of toxic mist. The source of the devastation is revealed to be Hedorah, who attacks and overwhelms Mechagodzilla. Before Hedorah can destroy Mechagodzilla, Godzilla himself arrives and reluctantly joins forces with his mechanical double against Hedorah. Hedorah puts up a savage fight against the two monsters, but in the end is defeated by their combined might.
In Godzilla: Ongoing, Hedorah is one of the space monsters that attacks Earth, the others being Gigan, SpaceGodzilla, and Monster X. Hedorah does battle with Kiryu and almost destroys him, but Godzilla arrives and takes on the smog monster while Kiryu escapes to get backup. Hedorah badly wounds Godzilla with his deadly toxic body and knocks him into a canyon, where he attempts to drown Godzilla in toxic sludge. Godzilla uses his atomic breath to fly out of the canyon and resumes his battle with Hedorah. Godzilla tears Hedorah into pieces and burns him into dust with his atomic breath. Godzilla then leaves to battle the other space monsters, leaving Hedorah apparently destroyed.
Hedorah appears in The Half Century War #3 as one of the many monsters battling in Ghana in 1975.
Hedorah in Godzilla: The Half-Century War #3
Hedorah is briefly seen in the first issue of Godzilla: Rulers of Earth, as part of Dr. Kenji Ando's conference about the reasons why kaiju have gained their own place in the natural order. In the presentation, it's learned that the "Smog Monster," as the news like to call Hedorah, attacked several oil rigs in the ocean. Though Hedorah is presumably still alive and present on Earth during the events of the series, no attempts have been made to locate or capture him, and his current whereabouts are unknown.
Hedorah appeared in the final issue of Godzilla: Oblivion, where he emerged from an interdimensional portal alongside Anguirus, Rodan, Zilla, King Caesar, Biollante, and Mothra and her larvae as entered the battle between Mecha-King Ghidorah and Godzilla. After causing some destruction in the city, Hedorah challenged Godzilla following the latter's victory over Mecha-King Ghidorah, only to be dispatched by a blast of atomic breath. Later, all of the monsters were left behind as the humans left the Earth as it became covered by tiny robotic cells that served as interdimensional doorways.
- Main article: Hedorah/Gallery.
Hedorah's gurgling roar comes from Kemular, a poison gas monster from the original Ultraman series. When feeding on toxic fumes, Hedorah makes breathing noises that are recycled from Gezora. In addition, he utters several high-pitched laughter-like sounds, mostly in his final form. In Godzilla: Final Wars, his roar mostly remains the same, but he also emits sounds that are similar to an elephant trumpeting that has been lowered in pitch, and his roar now echoes.
In Other Languages
- German: Hydrox
- Italian: Hydrax
- Serbian and Russian: Хедора
- Chinese: Hēi duō lā (黑多拉)
- The Codex for the 2019 mobile game Godzilla Defense Force states that the Hedorah from Godzilla: Final Wars has "a red extension on its left hand that only occurs in the males of the species," and specifies that the Showa incarnation of the character lacks it because it is a female. However, it refers to both incarnations simply as "it."
- According to Haruo Nakajima, the Perfect Stage Hedorah suit weighed over 100 kilograms.
- At 48,000 metric tons in weight, Hedorah's Perfect Stage is the heaviest kaiju to appear in the Showa Godzilla series. However, he is not the heaviest kaiju in the entire Showa series, as several Terror-Beasts from Zone Fighter outweigh him.
- Hedorah evolves into a new form after each of the first three reel changes in Godzilla vs. Hedorah, with reel three even ending on the line, "What sort of monster will it become in its next stage, the fourth?"
- During filming of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, Kenpachiro Satsuma suffered a bout of appendicitis and had to have his appendix removed. However, the doctors found the suit too difficult to remove, and had to cut a hole in the suit to reach Satsuma's abdomen. During the operation, Satsuma learned that painkillers had no effect on him.
- The flying Hedorah prop from Godzilla vs. Hedorah was built around the wire frame skull of the original Baragon suit.
- The sound effect used for Hedorah's eye beams is the same as the one used for Showa King Ghidorah's flying, only played at a higher pitch.
- After he was selected by Toho to helm the next Godzilla film in 1975, Godzilla vs. Hedorah director Yoshimitsu Banno came up with the idea of the two monsters facing off again in Africa. Toho was uninterested and began developing a sequel to Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla instead.
- In both of Hedorah's film appearances, his left eye is injured in some way.
- Hedorah is one of the first Toho monsters to be depicted via hand-drawn animation, as seen in the animated segments of his debut film.
- In Godzilla: Final Wars, Hedorah's tail resembles the Choju King Crab's from Ultraman Ace.
- Hedorah was the last new monster in the Showa series to completely act on its own independence, as the rest were controlled by aliens or undersea civilizations.
- Hedorah's debut in Godzilla vs. Hedorah coincided with the revival of the Ultra Series with The Return of Ultraman. Curiously, the first episode of the new series, which was directed by Ishiro Honda, featured a monster called Zazahn, a kelp monster bearing a remarkable likeness to Hedorah who was supposedly attracted to a city by pollution.
- In Bandai's 1984 Godzilland merchandise line, Hedorah is depicted as a female monster and one of Godzilla's friends. The Godzilland Hedorah is generally depicted as purple in color with long eyelashes above its eyes. This is the only known instance of Hedorah being portrayed as an ally or friend of Godzilla.
- On Noriyoshi Ohrai's advance poster for Godzilla: Final Wars, Hedorah is depicted with his original Showa design rather than the new design he sports in the film itself.
- The end credits for Godzilla: Final Wars feature additional footage of Hedorah attacking Tokyo that is not present elsewhere in the film.
- Hedorah was likely an inspiration for the monster Destoroyah in Godzilla vs. Destoroyah. Both monsters possess multiple forms, including microscopic, flying, and gigantic bipedal final forms, are composed of trillions of microorganisms that have merged together, are extremely difficult opponents for Godzilla, and are incredibly deadly to organic life. Both Hedorah and Destoroyah likely influenced the creation of the monster Shinomura from the comic Godzilla: Awakening, which also shares many of these similarities.
This is a list of references for Hedorah. These citations are used to identify the reliable sources on which this article is based. These references appear inside articles in the form of superscript numbers, which look like this: